The following literature review was made by our in-house doctor to cover all the latest findings about Mangosteen extract found in Clearasteen and its metabolic properties.
In this review we are talking about the mangosteen a plant of tropical regions mostly found in Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia. It is also known as The pericarp extract of mangosteen fruit has many beneficial roles in coping with the metabolic disorders, Xanthones which are extracted from the mangosteen plant and almost 50 diverse kinds of xanthones have been recognised yet, Xanthones have identifies to play an important role in the insulin levels in the diabetes. Moreover, it has beneficial roles of antioxidant activity in obesity. Certain other roles of mangosteen extract have been observed which involves controlling the disorders like Diarrhoea etc.
Tropical plants have certain and several interesting metabolic activities along with many therapeutic applications. One of the most important tropic plant which is known as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) which plays (Weecharangsan et al., 2006) a number of vital roles. Mangosteen belongs to the Guttiferae family (Chaverri, RODRIGUEZ, IBARRA, & ROJAS, 2019) and it is also known as the Queen of fruits. It is mostly found and cultivated in tropical rainforest areas like Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (Mohri et al., 2013) . The length of this tree ranges from 6 m to 26 m meters and its leaves have glabrous are leathery appearance(Issarakraisila & Sethpakdee, 2000).
Mangosteen plant has a slow development and growth rate. Mangosteen fruit has colour which usually have a reddish or dark purple appearance with a little fight juicy and soft pulp which is edible along with the little acidic and sweet flavour. It has a pleasant user friendly sweet aroma that is why it is known as the queen of fruits (Lincoff, 2012) because this is the only fruit in tropical areas which is the best in its taste. From centuries the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit is being used for the treatment of certain infections and wounds as a medicine agent by certain South East Asian countries (Q.-Y. Liu, Wang, & Lin, 2015). Mangosteen has proven its value as an active and efficient medicinal agent for treating several different type of diseases involving diseases related to liver and heart (Devalaraja, Jain, & Yadav, 2011). It has also been used to treat amoebic dysentery (Pedraza-Chaverri, Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Orozco-Ibarra, & Pérez-Rojas, 2008). Some studies have also shown that the pericarp extract of mangosteen fruit has a wide range of effective and therapeutic use against the diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery and inflammation. GML (Garcinia mangostana Linn) i.e. mangosteen plant study has shown that it contains a wide range of secondary metabolites (Adnyana, Abuzaid, Iskandar, & Kurniati, 2016) which includes oxygenated xenthones (Prasad & Sati, 2011) and prenylated xanthones (Khaw et al., 2014) .
In some of the higher plant families, fungi and lichens xenthones are present abundantly and they play a vital role because they comprise an important class of oxygenated heterocycles (Tekale et al.). Nucleus of the Xanthone is symmetric and is known as dibenzo-y-pyrone or as 9- xanthenone. On the basis of functioning the xanthones have been divided into five major groups (Ahmad, 2016); xanthone glycosides (Negi, Bisht, Singh, Rawat, & Joshi, 2013), xanthonolignoids (C.-J. Li et al., 2014), simple oxygenated xenthones, miscellaneous xanthones (Wezeman, Bräse, & Masters, 2015) and prenylated xanthones. From the year 2000 to 2004 about 279 new xanthones from three lichen species 19 species and 122 species from higher plant families and by this time about 1000 different varieties of xanthones have been identified and described. The metabolic activities of such compounds are in direct association with their tricyclic framework but they differ greatly depending upon the position and nature of certain different substitutes. Several different xanthones extractions have been made from the pericarp, leaves, fruit and bark of the mangosteen plant (Sarawut Jindarat, 2014).
A lot of experiments were conducted and they have shown that the xanthones extracted from the mangosteen fruit showed a great interest in the metabolic activities and are more valuable than other xanthones obtained from certain different parts of the plant (Gutierrez-Orozco & Failla, 2013). Type of xanthones which are studied mostly involves alpha beta and gamma mangosteens, gartanin, 8-deoxygartanin and garcinone E (S.-n. Wang et al., 2016) along with these there are certain other laboratory prepared synthetic xanthones which have been used in in various studies yet. The metabolic activities of mangosteen extracted xanthones from the pericarp includes anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, antifungal, antiviral, anti tumoral, antioxidant and anti-allergy (Ibrahim et al., 2016).
- Mangosteen Pericarp extracted Xanthones
Currently 50 different form of xanthones have been identified and they have been extracted from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit (Gutierrez-Orozco & Failla, 2013). Which type of mangosteen which was discovered for the first time was named as mangostin and after this the year of 1855 when it was extracted from the mangosteen pericarp it was named as alpha mangostin (Ibrahim et al., 2016). It is actually a matter which is yellow in colour and it can also be obtained from the dried sap of mangosteen and also from the bark of mangosteen. Recently the structure, molecular formula and the position of substitute for alpha mangostin have been established and identified (W. Wang & Hu, 2012). A few years back mangosharin (Lim, 2012) have been extracted from the mangosteen bark along with this alpha and beta mangostin were are also extracted from the Cratoxylum cochinchinense roots, which is actually a shrub tree from the family of Guttiferae (Tala et al., 2013). there are certain other xanthones which are extracted from the mangosteen fruit pericarp, these xanthones (Sarawut Jindarat, 2014) usually includes gamma mangostin, 5, 9-dihydroxy -8- methoxy -2, 8- deoxygartanin, gartanin, garcinone type A, B, C, D and E, euxanthone, mangostenol, mangostanol, compound 7 and mangostanine, mangostanine, caloxanthone, tovophyllin type A and B and several others xanthones which have been extracted from the mangosteen fruit pericarp (Karim & Azlan, 2012).
Metabolic activities of Mangosteen Pericarp extract
- Antioxidants role
The isolated xanthones and certain other extracts have antioxidant properties which can be shown with the help of some methods (Suttirak & Manurakchinakorn, 2014) such as 2,2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Aksoy, Kolay, Ağılönü, Aslan, & Kargıoğlu, 2013), the ferric thiocyanate method (Savjani, Babcock, Khor, & Raghani, 2014) and one more important method known as ABTS ( 2,20-azino-bis-3- ethylbenzthiazoline -6- sulfonic acid assay (Khairallah, 2013) . it has been found from the studies that the methanolic extraction from the mangosteen hulls showed the DPPH radical scavenging activity (Suttirak & Manurakchinakorn, 2014), on the other hand by using ferric thiocyanate method it was observed that alpha and gamma mangostins revealed the antioxidant activity (Suttirak & Manurakchinakorn, 2014). along with these studies it was also found that alpha mangostins responsible for decreasing the concentration of human LDL (Mora, Buring, & Ridker, 2014)(low density lipoprotein) oxidation which is induced by the peroxyl radical or copper. Studies also show that alpha mangostin was responsible (Ibrahim et al., 2016) for prolonging the lag time for conjugated dienes at 234 nm in such a manner which is dose dependent, secondly it is also responsible for diminishing the production of thiobarbituric reactive substances (Trujillo et al., 2013) and along with this it also contributes in decreasing the conversion (Matough, Budin, Hamid, Alwahaibi, & Mohamed, 2012) of alpha tocopherol (Grilo et al., 2014) which is induced by low density lipoproteins oxidation. Later on, it was also found that alpha mangostin (Wihastuti et al., 2014) and the synthetic derivatives of alpha mangostin plays vital role in decreasing the consumption of alpha tocopherol which is induced by the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Furthermore, it was concluded from the studies that there was certain alterations in the structure of alpha mangostin and these structural alterations of alpha mangostin there has a great impact on the antioxidant activity of alpha mangostin (Márquez-Valadez et al., 2012). Certain different experiments were conducted and it was confirmed from the results that structural modifications are responsible for the elevation and decline in the antioxidant activity as a substitution of C-3 and C-6 with the derivatives of amino ethyl effectively increases the antioxidant activity (Tooulia, Theodosis‐Nobelos, & Rekka, 2015) while on the other hand substitution with acetate, methyl and nitrile greatly contributed towards the decrease in the antioxidant activity (Roh, Vávrová, & Hrabálek, 2012). in Singapore an experiment was conducted to calculate the total antioxidant capacity, in this experiment about 27 different fruits which were available in the Singapore are included along with the mangastream fruit using the methods of DPPH (Rekha et al., 2012) radial scavenging activity and thiobarbituric reactive substances. It was John from the results that the extract from mangosteen fruit had the 8th place in the efficiency of antioxidant activity.
A scientist Moongkarndi performed an experiment to showed that mangosteen extract contributes in significantly diminishing the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (Sypniewski et al., 2018), this was made with the help of DCFH-DA (2, 7- dichloro fluorescein diacetate) in the SKBR3 cell line (Henjes et al., 2012), on the contrary basis another study was performed in Philippines to show the antioxidant capacity of several vegetables and fruits by measuring the oxidation and hydroxyl radical scavenging (X. Li, 2013). The results on the studies show that there was maximum antioxidant capacity in the extract which was obtained from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit. A study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the alpha mangostin effect (Ibrahim et al., 2016) on the antioxidant defence system along with its effect on peroxidation of lipids during the myocardial infarction in rats which is induced and characterized by isoproterenol (Sudheesh, Ajith, & Janardhanan, 2013). By treating the myocardial infarction affected rats with isoproterenol for 2 days, it was seen that there was a significant decline in the antioxidant enzymes glutathione(Wei et al., 2013)S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalyse (CAT) and reduced form of glutathione (GSH) while on the other hand there was an incredible elevation in the enzymes of serum including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), lipid peroxides, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). According to the histological observation of rats which were treated with isoproterenol it was seen that they were certain necrotic modifications in the tissues which are characterized by intense neutrophils infiltration (Y.-t. Liu et al., 2013). These modifications were attenuated significantly when rats were pre-treated with alpha mangostin for 6 days earlier and 2 concurrent days. This type of xanthone proved its value as a protective agent against the lipid peroxidation and the different system of antioxidant activity during the injury which was induced myocardial infarction in rats (Lalitha, Poornima, Archanah, & Padma, 2013). Later on it was found that alpha mangostin with pericarp extracted, commercial mangosteen juice and mangosteen extract have the ability to scavenge directly with the reactive oxygen species and in this way preventing the neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species production which is induced by 3- nitro propionic acid in cultured neurones (Y. Wang et al., 2012).
- Optimized and Non-optimized antioxidant activity
For antioxidant properties the optimized and non-optimized extracts from the pericarp of mangosteen fruit were tested by using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay (Ghasemzadeh, Jaafar, Baghdadi, & Tayebi-Meigooni, 2018). These optimized and non-optimized extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/mL to 90 μg/mL, with an increase in the concentration of the extracts the activity of DPPH was significantly increased. It was seen that the optimized extracts were exhibiting higher activity of DPPH as in comparison with the non-optimized extracts (Cvetanović et al., 2017). Optimized extracts which are presented as a lower half (IC50 = 20.62 µg/mL) utmost inhibitory concentration as compared to the extract of the non-optimized (28.52 µg/mL), which shows potent properties related to antioxidant activity. Certain studies have been conducted and the results from the recent studies have showed that G. mangostana extract has an antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 30.2 µg/mL as compared to the (BHA) Butylated hydroxyanisole (Pujimulyani et al., 2018), the value will be (IC50 = 20.0 µg/mL) if we are using the DPPH assay. On the contrary basis other studies showed that, α-mangostin effectively showed an antioxidant activity with the value of IC50 = 7.40 µg/mL extracted from an extract of dry form of G. mangostana rind as compared to the ascorbic acid having value of IC50 = 4.50 µg/mL by the use of DPPH assay (Manyi-Loh, Ndip, & Clarke, 2013). Highest antioxidant activity have been shown by Ascorbic acid as a positive and effective control, It showed that IC50 < 10 µg/mL as compared to the both non-optimized extracts and optimized extracts, while here is an important fact that interestingly optimized extract had greater rate of the antioxidant activity as in comparison with the (BHT) Butylated hydroxytoluene (Yehye et al., 2015). Along with this, the non- optimized extract had relatively less antioxidant role as compared to that of Butylated hydroxytoluene. The optimized extract also contributes in exhibiting the higher (FARP) ferric reducing antioxidant potential activity (496.40 ± 12.78 μM of Fe (II)/g DM) as compared to the less activity in the non- optimized extract of value (344.64 ± 8.63 μM of Fe (II)/g DM). The activity of FRAP in optimized extract was higher than Butylated hydroxytoluene (Sharmila et al., 2016), on the other hand its activity is lower as compared to the higher activity of FRAP in ascorbic acid. Generally, after the optimization (Zarena, Manohar, & Sankar, 2012) of the extraction process the antioxidant activity of the mangosteen pericarp extracts was enhanced. The mangosteen extracts contained superior radical-scavenging activities due to the presence of higher amounts of phytocompounds. Certain studies have been conducted and it was concluded from the studies that the concentration and type of phytochemicals are significantly in direct association with the free-radical-scavenging power of the mangosteen pericarp (Naksuriya & Okonogi, 2015).
Mangosteen peel extract (Maqsood, Benjakul, Abushelaibi, & Alam, 2014) efficiency for controlling the oxidative reactions under the in vitro conditions has been identified as compared with the efficiencies of other fruit peel extracts as well as antioxidants which are commercially available for oxidative reactions control. In the model system of radical scavenging activity, the antioxidant activity of mangosteen (Suttirak & Manurakchinakorn, 2014) was much better as compared to the, banana, limonia, coconut, persimmon, kaffir lime, dragon fruit, long-gong and passion fruit. On the contrary basis the extract from mangosteen pericarp as compared to the extract from the limonia fruit exhibited elevated reducing power on the FRAP assay (Henderson, Nigam, & Owusu-Apenten, 2015). Studies have shown that the extract from mangosteen pericarp is responsible for playing its role as an inhibitory agent in the (SC-CO2) supercritical fluid carbon dioxide on the lipid oxidation which is similar to the α-tocopherol. Along with this, in the extracts of ethyl acetate and acetone, the higher effective therapeutic methods, as compared to that of BHA, for retarding the lipid oxidation have been detected (Suttirak & Manurakchinakorn, 2014). It was concluded from the studies that the alteration and variation in the quality and quantity of biologically active compounds are responsible for elevation (FANG, 2016) in the antioxidant activity of extract from the mangosteen.
- Diabetes and Obesity
From the past two decades there has been a surprisingly cumulative curiosity in the metabolic effects of mangosteen (G. mangostana L.) as a lot of assertions have been completed related to the health favourable properties of the marketable beverages which are derived from the fruit especially in the obese people and that of people with diabetes. In the streptozotocin diabetic rat (Zhou, Feng, Zhan, & Chen, 2014) model the potential hypolipidemic and hypoglycaemic effects of extracts from mangosteen and compounds of mangosteen have been examined primarily (Zhang & Jiang, 2012). Such as, it was observed that a single dose of 100 mg/kg of an ethanolic extract from the fruit rind (contains three main compounds α-mangostin, γ-mangosteen, and gartanin) a test which involves an oral maltose tolerance causes the reduction in postprandial glycaemia augmentation (Blaak et al., 2012).
It was observed that the long-lasting dose usage during the 28 days of an ethanolic extract of the pericarp of the fruit to diabetic rats were responsible in showing hypoglycaemic effect (Taher, Zakaria, Susanti, & Zakaria, 2016), along with this, it also contributed towards the reduction in serum triglycerides (Katare, Saxena, Agrawal, & Prasad, 2013), serum glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT), low-density lipoproteins as well as very-low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) and pyruvic transaminases (SGPT), creatinine along with urea, while on the other hand it also increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and total number of proteins. In this analysis the ability of the extract to enhance β-pancreatic cells number was the most important finding documented. α-mangostin supplementation to the diabetic rats on daily basis with a dose of (200 mg/kg added in the diet for 2 months) effectively provoked substantial hypoglycaemic and insulin tropic effects (Nelli & Kilari, 2013), an attenuation in glycated plasma haemoglobin and a decline in the triglycerides of serum as well as decline in cholesterol levels.
Likewise, it has been concluded from the studies that mangosteen xanthones alter glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo and in cell-based assays, consequently affecting the energy homeostasis. α-mangostin doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg/kg in a chronic study of 56 days, showed hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and insulinotropic effects, along with this they also contributes towards the increase in the levels of hexokinase, CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GSH. Moreover, a decline was detected in the fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, glycated haemoglobin, and glucose-6-phosphatase. A mangosteen pericarp extract (which contains 84% of xanthones which are standardized to the α-mangostin) was capable to deteriorate high fat diet-induced steatosis (Yin et al., 2012) in a model of rat which consists of non-alcoholic fat liver disease.
In this rat model, it was observed that there was decrease in the concentration of serum free fatty acid along with the triglyceride accumulation, and an escalation of the activities of CAT, SOD, glutathione reductase (GR), and GPx were detected after the administration of α-mangostin. The point which is of concern here is that the extract from the α-mangostin was capable to rise the intracellular antioxidant defense mechanism is of actual interest (Ovalle-Magallanes, Eugenio-Perez, & Pedraza-Chaverri, 2017), meanwhile pancreatic β-cells shows very little concentrations of CAT and GPx, therefore rendering them susceptible to oxidative stress linked to diabetes pathology, and α-mangostin protective effect also involves the restoration of β-cells functionality along with the secretion of insulin (Lee, Kim, Jung, Chin, & Kang, 2018), as confirmed by the increase in the levels of insulin in rats It was also observed that α-mangostin treatment also causes an induction in an increase in the respiratory parameters of mitochondria, involving nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-cytochrome c reductase (Iyanagi, Makino, & Mason, 1974) (NCCR), oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and also the activities of succinate-cytochrome c reductase (King, 1967) (SCCR).
Xanthone intake also causes reduction in the production of both total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis induced by the suppression of free fatty acids, and decreases in the activation of caspases -3, and -9, along with this it also contributes effectively in releasing Ca2+ and cytochrome c in the mitochondria. α-, β, and γ-mangostins (Chae, Oh, Lee, Joo, & Chin, 2012) are considered as non-competitive pancreatic lipase inhibitors i.e. they have the ability to induce a decrease in the gastrointestinal absorption of fatty acids ultimately favouring the detected pharmacological effects. For example, it have been showed that α-mangostin suppresses the accumulation of lipids in 3T3-L1 mice preadipocytes (Quan et al., 2012) and on the other hand it stimulates the lipolysis in mature adipocytes of 3T3-L1 mice and this adipocyte inhibited by xanthone were responsible for inducing growth and also induced the apoptosis in preliminary adipocytes(Rayalam et al., 2009) with the harm to mitochondrial membrane potential characterized by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS).
Subsequently, it was concluded from the studies that inflammatory response is greatly linked to the obesity (Taher et al., 2015), in human macrophages a model of LPS induced inflammation to study the anti-inflammatory effects of α- and γ-mangostins was used. Human macrophages effectively contributed towards the decline in the macrophage gene expression of cytokines which was induced by LPS, these cytokines includes IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and along with this it also involves the decrease in the MAPK transcription factors ( transcription factors including (ERK, p38 and JNK) characterized by the decrease in the LPS phosphorylation progressing towards the reduction in the members of AP-1 transcription family activation (c-Jun, ATF-2 and Elk-1) along with this the γ-mangostin perform its key function in lowering the expression of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 as well as monocyte chemo attractant protein (Amann, Perabo, Wirger, Hugenschmidt, & Schultze-Seemann, 1998) (MCP-1) in adipocytes and it also prevents from the degradation of the inhibitor of NFκB (IκBα) mediated by LPS.
It has been shown from the studies that α- and γ-mangostins are responsible for the induction of mien of the proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ gene in human macrophages cells along with this it is termed as the only γ-mangostin which performs its function by selectively activating PPARα in human HepG2 hepatocytes cells as well as activation of PPARδ in L6 rat microtubes. As a result, favouring the outflow of energy in the skeletal muscle and liver. Peroxisome PPAR family (Tyagi, Gupta, Saini, Kaushal, & Sharma, 2011) activation causes the reduction in hyperglycemia and insulin resistance because it is responsible for the regulation of expression of genes which are involved in the carbohydrate in lipid metabolism making it a perfect target of pharmacological approaches to treat several metabolic disorders. Furthermore, the xanthones of mangosteen have proven to be of great importance in effective alleviation of metabolic-related disorders. For example, chronic α-mangostin dosage to diabetic rats (200 mg/kg daily for 2 months) causes the elevation in the ocular blood flow and on the other hand causes reduction in the pressure in mean artery, barrier of blood retina along with retinal monoaldehyde production and reduction in the generation of retinal advanced glycation end products (Singh, Barden, Mori, & Beilin, 2001) (AGEs) and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), TNF-α, and (VEGF) vascular endothelial growth factor (Koch & Claesson-Welsh, 2012).
Subsequently, α-mangostin, β-mangostin as well as 3-isomangostin, have showed inhibitory activity for aldose reductase, as it contributes towards the decrease in the transformation of glucose to sorbitol and it effectively reduces the diabetic complications which are associated to the predominant high levels of glucose like protein glycosylation.
- Potential applications
Currently, the most concerned topic nowadays is the rising interest in the properties of the substances exhibiting the antioxidant activities. For the food industry oxidative type of reactions are not an elite concern, and to prevent worsening of various oxidizable products including pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, antioxidants are widely needed. Subsequently, food preservation technology and contemporary health care antioxidants have become a crucial part. In view of the effective and strong antioxidant activity of mangosteen pericarp extract, for increasing the living span of food by preventing the lipid peroxidation it can be possibly used as food additive.
In this review the data available also shows possible and most appropriate cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications for the protection against the oxidative damage in the living systems which is characterized by the antioxidant activity of mangosteen pericarp extract. Recent drifts in the anti-aging research throw the light on the use of biologically active compounds against skin aging from natural resources. Some of the most promising topical treatment methods for treating the aging of skin usually includes the herbal extracts, antioxidant food supplements and use of vitamins which are being used widely for restoring the elasticity of skin by scavenging the free radicals from the skin. The extracts from crude ethanol of mangosteen peel, α-mangostin and γ-mangostin has been identified to be responsible for the peripheral and central ant nociceptive effects in mice, this activity also suggests that xanthones from the mangosteen pericarp may be developed as anti-inflammatory drugs and novel analgesics.
On the contrary base, the interactions between proteins and plant phenolics may lead to the formation of complex soluble as well as insoluble compounds. Such interactions can possibly have a damaging effects on the bioavailability of in vivo both proteins and plant phenolics and proteins, it was reported from a study that crude extract of phenolics extracted from the mangosteen pericarp presented a robust protein-precipitating potential. Certain studies were conducted and results from these studies suggested that these plant phenolics are responsible for the insoluble protein-phenolic complexes formation. Later on it was also found that the ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarp was responsible for the strong cytotoxic effects on the leukemic cell lines, on the other hand it was also toxic to the mononuclear cells in the normal peripheral blood. Similarly, on the cancer cell lines mangosteen pericarp extracts also showed persuasive antiproliferative activity. Though, the mangosteen pericarp extracts had cytotoxic action on the normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This limits the application of these extracts from mangosteen pericarp as a vital source of novel anticancer agents.
Mangosteen is an important plant in the category of tropical plants which has been used from a long time for the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, Therapeutic and medical use of manhgosteen plant has been showing promising results in the fgrowing market cocerns for the future. Different forms of extracts have been isolated frioom the mangosteen plant, these extracts usually contains about 50 different types of the xanthones which are extract of pericarp of the mangosteen fruit. Xanthones have antioxidant roles which play important role in maintain the levels of insulin in the diabetes along with this it is also responsible for controlling the factors which play their role in inducing the obesity. Antioxidant activity of mangosteen pericarp has shown favourable results and has shown strong and effective activities which can be helpful against coping up with the certain several metabolic disorders.
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